Sohae Eve Oh
Ph.D. Student, Economics DepartmentNorth Carolina State University
Multiple Imputation on Missing Values in Time Series Data
Financial stock market data, for various reasons, frequently contain missing values. One reason for this is that, because the markets close for holidays, daily stock prices are not always observed. This creates gaps in information, making it difficult to predict the following day’s stock prices. In this situation, information during the holiday can be “borrowed” from other countries’ stock market, since global stock prices tend to show similar movements and are in fact highly correlated. The main goal of this study is to combine stock index data from various markets around the world and develop an algorithm to impute the missing values in individual stock index using “information-sharing” between different time series. To develop imputation algorithm that accommodate time series-specific features, we take multiple imputation approach using dynamic linear model for time-series and panel data. This algorithm assumes ignorable missing data mechanism, as which missingness due to holiday. The posterior distributions of parameters, including missing values, is simulated using Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) methods and estimates from sets of draws are then combined using Rubin’s combination rule, rendering final inference of the data set. Specifically, we use the Gibbs sampler and Forward Filtering and Backward Sampling (FFBS) to simulate joint posterior distribution and posterior predictive distribution of latent variables and other parameters. A simulation study is conducted to check the validity and the performance of the algorithm using two error-based measurements: Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE). We compared the overall trend of imputed time series with complete data set, and inspected the in-sample predictability of the algorithm using Last Value Carried Forward (LVCF) method as a bench mark. The algorithm is applied to real stock price index data from US, Japan, Hong Kong, UK and Germany. From both of the simulation and the application, we concluded that the imputation algorithm performs well enough to achieve our original goal, predicting the stock price for the opening price after a holiday, outperforming the benchmark method. We believe this multiple imputation algorithm can be used in many applications that deal with time series with missing values such as financial and economic data and biomedical data.